The Inca Civilizations was an aboriginal American Indian culture that evolved in the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century. The pre-Columbian civilization was extraordinary in its developments of human society and culture, ranking with the early civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia.
The prevalent thought about the origin of Maya writing is that it grew out of an even more ancient writing system developed by the Olmecs as early as 1000 BCE, at a time period called the Preclassic by archaeologists. Only fragmentary evidence for this writing system existed until the announcement in 2006 of the existence of the Cascajal block, a small rectangular tablet inscribed with 62 symbols resembling symbols found in Olmec art but otherwise undecipherable. However, the writing system of the Cascajal block is very different from that of the Maya, and it is impossible to say if it had any influence on Maya writing at all.
Regardless of when the Maya started to write, the earliest examples of Maya writing date from the Late Preclassic period (300 BCE to 300 CE).
The Inca culture had hundreds of Inca symbols, most of them were create for war, religion and astrology. The symbols have the shape of snakes, condors, corn, cougars, the sun, the lighting, the coca plant and many others.
The Inca symbols are simple, but the Chakana is a complex symbol. The Chakana is a geometrical shape, form by one circle and one square inside the circle. The square is aligning with the vertices, right in the circle midpoints. Then inside the square, we can see another circle, but smaller and inside this small circle we found a second square. The second square is standing in one of its vertices, looking like a rhombus.
Although scientist tried to figure out the mystery of the Chakana symbol, they don't really understand who made the Chakana symbol. The Chakana symbol is used on many Inca's culture product such as textile, constructions and other culture product. The Chakana symbol is used by the Inca tribe to calculate almost everything during their life thus the Chakana symbol could be the fundamental of modern mathematics.